The Future Of Transportation: Autonomous Vehicles

The self-driving car revolution has taken the world by storm, and companies like Google and Tesla are all trying to get a piece of the market.

But what does this mean for the future of transportation and, more importantly, for the engineers of the future?

As the world moves into a new era of transportation, engineering students and professionals must both understand the technology behind self-driving cars and what it means for the future.

So let us buckle up and dive into the world of self-driving cars, where the road ahead is full of new ideas and possibilities.

Understanding Autonomous Vehicles

Formal definition:

A vehicle that is able to plan its path and to execute its plan without human intervention.

An autonomous vehicle is perfect if you are too tired to drive or just want to take a nap on the way to work. Just sit back and let the car do everything. Who watched this episode of "South Park" show?

Ok, back to the explanation:

An autonomous vehicle is a car that has sensors, cameras, radar, and artificial intelligence (AI) that allow it to run without human help.

This technology is a combination of on-board and remote hardware and software that can drive a vehicle without a human operator physically controlling it or keeping an eye on it.

Autonomous vehicle technology could make cars safer, keep people from getting hurt, and even save lives. But there are still a lot of problems to solve before fully autonomous vehicles can be used by most people.

Autonomous Vehicle Levels

Based on what they can do, autonomous vehicles are divided into five levels.

Here is a list of the levels:

  • Level 0: The driver is in charge of everything about driving the car.
  • Level 1: The car has one automated system, such as cruise control or help staying in your lane, but the driver is in charge of everything else.
  • Level 2: The car has two or more automated systems that work together, like adaptive cruise control and help staying in your lane.
  • The driver is still in charge of keeping an eye on the car and taking control if needed.
  • Level 3: The car can take care of most of the driving, but the driver must be ready to take over at any time if the car asks them to.
  • Level 4: The vehicle can drive itself in certain situations and does not need any help from a person. But the car might still have a steering wheel and pedals that a human driver could use if needed.
  • Level 5: The vehicle is fully self-driving and does not need any help from a person.

For more about the levels of automation:

Current Status of Autonomous Vehicles

At the moment I write this, there are no fully autonomous vehicles that can be driven legally in the United States.

There are, however, vehicles that are only partly self-driving. For example, some have adaptive cruise control and help staying in their lanes.

Automakers and tech companies are working on making fully self-driving cars available to the public soon.

Autonomous Vehicle Technology

Autonomous vehicles use a variety of technology to sense their surroundings and make decisions.

Some of the technologies that are used in self-driving cars are:

  • Sensors: Autonomous vehicles use cameras, radar, and LiDAR, among other sensors, to see and understand their surroundings.
  • Artificial intelligence: Autonomous vehicles analyze sensor data and make decisions based on complex algorithms and machine learning systems.
  • Mapping: Using information from their sensors, self-driving cars make and keep track of a map of their surroundings.

Autonomous cars can read road signs and markings with the help of camera technology.

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems are used by self-driving cars to make a 3D map of their surroundings.

Challenges for Autonomous Vehicles

Before mass production of self-driving cars can start, there are a few problems that need to be solved. Among these problems are:

  • Advances in technology: More advances in AI and sensor technology are needed to make autonomous vehicles safer and more reliable.
  • Environment: Self-driving cars must be able to work safely in a variety of weather conditions, like rain and snow.
  • Regulation: Right now, there are no federal rules for self-driving cars, and each state has its own way of regulating how they can be used.
  • Accident liability: It is not clear who would be at fault if an autonomous vehicle got into an accident.

This is a complicated legal problem that needs to be fixed before mass production can start.

Building Autonomous Vehicles

To make a car that drives itself, both software and hardware parts must be made.

The software component requires knowledge of computer science, machine learning, and deep learning to generate driving instructions from sensor and input data.

The hardware part needs sensors, cameras, and other parts to be put together so that the driving instructions can be carried out in the real car.

Additionally, autonomous vehicles require a complex software stack for all autonomous functions, such as object detection and identification.

When putting self-driving cars on public roads, safety needs to be taken into account as well.

Skills and Qualifications

Becoming an autonomous vehicle engineer requires a strong background in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineering, and experience with robotics, sensor systems, and machine learning.

Typically, a bachelor's degree in a related field such as computer engineering, mechatronics engineering, or computer science is required, along with relevant work experience or internships.

Some jobs may require a master's or doctoral degree in a related field.

Job Responsibilities

An autonomous vehicle engineer's job duties could include designing and implementing software algorithms, making and integrating sensor systems, testing and evaluating autonomous driving systems, and making sure they follow safety rules.

Engineers need to keep up with the latest developments and trends in their field and work to improve their skills and knowledge all the time.

Education and Training

To gain the necessary skills and knowledge for a career in autonomous vehicles, individuals can take courses or pursue degrees from universities that offer specialized programs in robotics, mechatronics, or autonomous vehicles.

There are also many online courses and resources, like Coursera, Udacity, and edX, that offer certifications and degrees in autonomous vehicle engineering.

Also, going to conferences and making connections with other professionals in your field can give you valuable insights and help you move up in your career.

Market Trends in Autonomous Vehicles

In the next few years, the global market for self-driving cars is expected to grow a lot.

In 2020, the market was valued at $76.13 billion, and it is projected to reach $2,161.79 billion by 2030, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40.1% from 2021 to 2030.

Several factors are driving this growth, including the advancement of smart cities, the development of infrastructure and connectivity, and the increasing demand for autonomous vehicles.


The autonomous vehicle market can be segmented based on several factors, including level of automation and vehicle type.

  • Level of automation: Based on what they can do, autonomous vehicles can be put into one of five categories

Level 5 is fully autonomous and does not need any help from a person. The more automated a car is, the more likely it is to cost a lot of money. In 2021, the semi-autonomous market segment was a big part of the global market.

  • Vehicle type: The market for autonomous vehicles is dominated by passenger cars, which accounted for the majority of the market share in 2021.

However, there is also growing demand for autonomous trucks and buses, particularly for use in logistics and public transportation.

Major companies in the market

Several big companies are leading the way in the market for self-driving cars.

  • Volkswagen AG.
  • The Toyota Motor Corporation.
  • The Ford Motor Company.
  • The General Motors Company.
  • The BMW Group.
  • Daimler AG.
  • Volvo Car Corporation.
  • Tesla Inc.
  • Audi AG.
  • Honda Motor Co., Ltd.

These companies are putting a lot of money into research and development to come up with new technologies for autonomous vehicles

They are likely to have a big impact on the future of the market.

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is an unmanned, untethered robot that can move around underwater without needing constant control from a person on the surface.

AUVs are often used for research in the ocean, where they are used to survey, take samples, and collect data.

Operators on a ship or even on land can program or control them. They carry a variety of tools for sampling and surveying, such as cameras, sonar, and depth sensors.

Power and Mobility

AUVs are powered by special batteries, fuel cells, or solar panels that can be charged, so they can work on their own for long periods of time.

They can go where boats can not because they can go into shallower water. This makes them useful for exploring areas where bigger ships can not go.

AUVs have propulsion systems that allow them to move through the water quickly and precisely.


AUVs are flexible and can be used for many different things, such as:

AUVs are used to survey the seafloor and measure the quality, temperature, and salinity of the water.

AUVs can be used to keep an eye on oil spills, find changes in coral reefs, and find out where pollution is coming from.

Military Operations: AUVs can be used to protect against mines, gather intelligence, and track submarines.

AUVs are used in the offshore oil and gas industry to inspect and maintain pipelines

They are also used in the shipping industry to inspect the hulls of ships.

Safety and Liability in Autonomous Vehicles

As the number of self-driving cars on the road grows, questions about safety and who is responsible have become more important.

If an accident happens with an autonomous vehicle, it can be hard to figure out who was at fault and who should pay for the damage.

Different places have different laws and rules about who is responsible for an accident involving an autonomous vehicle, and there is not yet a clear agreement on how liability will be decided in the event of an accident involving an autonomous vehicle.

Liability for Autonomous Vehicle Crashes

When an autonomous car crashes, the car's maker might have to pay for the damage. This is because the crash may have been caused by carelessness on the part of the automated driving system.

The law could say that the people who make these cars are responsible for every accident caused by the automated driving system.

Car companies like Volvo, Mercedes, and Google have hinted that they will be responsible if an accident is caused by one of their fully autonomous cars.

But it is important to remember that if a self-driving car gets into an accident, it might not be the car's fault.

If another driver did something like speed, run a red light, or drive recklessly, the driver of the self-driving car or the car itself would not be to blame.

In this case, if a self-driving car gets into an accident, the other driver could be at fault for being careless or a property owner could be at fault for having a dangerous area.

Insurance Payments and Damages

After a crash in an autonomous vehicle, it may be easier for victims to get insurance money because the driver is almost no longer responsible.

If an autonomous vehicle gets into an accident, the damages could be paid for by the vehicle manufacturer, the driver of the autonomous vehicle, a third party, or a combination of these parties, depending on the specifics of the accident and the laws of the place where the accident happened.

Want to learn more on the subject?

Use cases

Used in:Description:
Personal transportationSelf-driving cars could be used for personal transportation, so people would not have to drive themselves. This could be especially helpful for people who can not drive, have disabilities, or do not have access to a car.
Ride-sharing servicesSelf-driving cars could be used for services like Uber and Lyft, which would cut down on the need for human drivers and could make the service cheaper for passengers. Transportation for the public: Self-driving cars could be used for public transportation, making it faster and more reliable without the need for a driver.
Goods deliveryAutonomous vehicles could be used to deliver goods, which would cut down on the need for human drivers and could speed up and save money on the delivery process.
Industrial transportationAutonomous vehicles could be used to move goods in industrial settings like factories, warehouses, and ports. This would improve efficiency and lower the risk of accidents.
AgricultureAutonomous vehicles could be used in farming to do things like plow fields, plant seeds, and gather crops.
MiningAutonomous vehicles could be used in mining to do things like haul ore, drill, and dig, which would cut down on accidents and make the process more efficient. Autonomous vehicles could be used by the military to do things like transport, surveillance, and reconnaissance.
Emergency servicesSelf-driving cars could be used for emergency services, like getting injured people to hospitals or transporting medical supplies.


As we have seen, the world of self-driving cars is changing quickly and will continue to change how we get around in the future.

But it is not just about the technology; it is also about how it will affect society as a whole.

Self-driving cars could change the way we live and work in a lot of ways, like by cutting down on traffic and carbon emissions and by making new business models and job opportunities.

But each new technology comes with its own set of problems and moral questions.

Before fully joining the autonomous vehicle movement, there are a lot of things to think about, like liability and insurance, and the possibility that jobs could be lost in certain fields.

As engineers and future leaders in this field, it is up to us to deal with these problems and help shape the future of transportation in a way that helps everyone.

The road ahead may be rough, but if we have the right attitude and are committed to innovation and progress, we can make a safer, more efficient, and more sustainable world for future generations.

So let us take advantage of the opportunities and face the problems head-on.

Self-driving cars are not just a technological advance; they are also a social one, and it is up to us to make sure they help society as a whole.

As engineers, we have a unique chance to be at the front of this revolution, and we should not take that for granted.

We have control over the future, so let us make the most of it.

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